Alternative sources of energy are being pursued in the world today, as the accessibility of fossil fuels and other non- renewable resources are declining. Solar energy offers a promising solution to this search as it is a less polluting energy resource and can easily be converted into electricity through the usage of photovoltaic systems. It is a clean, pollution free and renewable energy source. Model approaches for a renewable energy supply have been developed and demonstrated to meet the energy requirements of rural people, while raising economic productivity contributing to a sustainable improvement in living conditions in rural areas. These also provide inputs for further rural energy interventions and they reduce carbon emissions by focusing on technologies not based on fossil fuels.

Providing access to electricity in rural areas of India is a major challenge. The fuel is generally of meagre quality, and energy is used inefficiently; the power supply is unreliable and access to it limited, with about 500 million people in rural areas still unable to benefit from modern energy services. This not only has an adverse effect on economic productivity; more importantly, it also affects people’s quality of life and is having a strong impact on the environment. The unsustainable use of locally sourced biomass and an increasing dependence on fossil fuels are causing environmental degradation at local (land degradation), regional (air, water and soil pollution) and global levels (greenhouse gas – GHG emissions contributing to climate change). At the same time, locally based measures that use renewable energies to secure the rural power supply are opening up new opportunities for economic productivity while also reducing GHG emissions and local pollution. The purpose of the Implementation of Rural Alternative Energy is to provide a qualified tool as a guide for governments, business, experts and financing organizations. By presenting best practices in a structured format, this tool can offer valuable support in the preparation of future projects for rural power supply using renewable energy.

2. Introduction

Smart Villages brings together socio economy development, thinkers and go-getters across the globe to support people out of rural poverty from the bottom up by enabling access to modern energy services as a catalyst for rural development. The concept behind the ‘smart village’ is that modern energy access acts as a catalyst for development – in education, health, security, productive enterprise, environment.

Substantial declines in the costs of solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, together with innovative sponsoring models tied to mobile telephones, have meant that solar lights, and increasingly solar home systems, have reached a tipping point in which sales are rapidly increasing on a fully commercial basis. Key constraints on further increases in the rate of growth lies in distribution systems for remote villages and access to working capital for the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) involved in this field.

An ‘energy escalator’ approach to raise solar home systems promises to bring additional applications such as TVs, refrigerators and sewing machines into the reach of householders. Mini-grids are desired to power many productive uses of electricity (for example milling, welding, machining, water pumping, etc.). There is much current interest in mini-grids and the search is on for the scalable business models that will enable fully commercial operation in due course.

An stimulating dynamics is developments in the home-based and mini-grid approaches that may result in mini- grids being favoured for larger villages, where productive uses of energy may  concentrate  solar  home-  based  approaches  serving  surrounding,  more  dispersed communities (a ‘hub-and-spoke’ model).Financing costs for mini-grids can be punitive as lenders often perceive risks to be high. Support from funding bodies and governments may appropriately seek to reduce the risk of investment sufficiently to bring interest rates down. Socially oriented ‘impact investors’ who are able to offer lower than commercial rates may also play an important role. Such impact investors may appropriately build a relationship with entrepreneurs similar to venture capital funders in which they continue to support the entrepreneur as their business progresses through various stages of growth.

3. Location of Project

Bhaluka village is situated at Majhipara Gram Panchayat, district of 24 parganas (North), West Bengal where approx. four nos. locality are present. Out of four we have taken survey of block no.2 where maximum BPL category people are staying approx.

82 nos. of house holder are there with manpower strength of approx. 480 nos. There is no street light available of near about 1.5 KMs area of this village.Purified drinking water facility is not available, depends upon tube wells and ponds.

4. Project Category (facility details)

Based on observation and study of the lifestyle of the villagers, three major areas has been identified where improvement can be done through implementation of Rural Alternative Energy w.r.t security, education and health perspective as under:

a. Solar Street Light (8 Nos.)

b. Standalone solar system for home lighting (10 Nos.)

c. Solar powered drinking water project (1 No.)

5. Solar Street Light

a. Technical details


Operating Voltage: 12V DC Power Consumption: 28 Watt Lamp Efficiency: 90%.

Illumination (E):  (Height=6m) 13 Lux, (Height=8m) 7.5 Lux,
                               (Height=10m) 4.5 Lux, (Height=12m) 3 Lux.

Distance between Adjacent poles: 6 mtrs – 15 to 18 mtrs., 8 mtrs – 20 to 24 mtrs,
                                                            10 mtrs – 25 to 30 mtrs.,12 mtrs – 32 to 36 mtrs.

Colour Temperature:    Pure White: 5000-7000k,

Warm White: 3000-4000k

Light Source: BBE Emitter (1Watt)

Working Temperature:-30 to 50ºC

Working Life: 50,000Hrs

Light Body and Lamp Shade: Aluminum Alloy
PC IP Rating: IP 65.


N.P. Voltage:       12 V
Power Rating: 120Wp


System Voltage:      12 Volts
Charging Current: 10 Amps


Nominal Voltage:        12 V DC
Nominal Capacity:       120 Ah
Battery Bank:               12V, 120Ah
Battery Type: Low Maintenance tubular at C\10


Height:                      6Mtr
Std.:                         As per IS

b. Commercial Details:

Construction cost: Rs. 8000/Stand (Pipe + Civil construction)
Solar Setting including Light Cost:      Rs. 21000/set
Per stand total cost: (Rs.21000 + Rs.8000) = Rs. 29000.00
Total Cost for 8 nos. stand light:  = Rs. 2,32,000.00

c. Advantages:

  1. Development of village security and lifestyle of
  2. Commercially
  3. Communication accessibility after sunlight
  4.  Model will be set up for improvement of another villager’s life style.

6. Standalone solar system for home lighting

This is off grid solar system, is a setup that generates electricity by utilizing solar energy system. Consists of Solar panels (which absorb sunlight), inverter (which converts DC into AC), mounting structure (That hold the panels in place), batteries (to store the extra power generated), grid box and balance of systems (wires, nuts etc).

a. Technical Details

Solar panel:             100 watts
Solar Battery: 150 watt hour/12 Ah
Solar Charge Controller:          6 amps
DC led batten :                  2 qty (3 watts and 5 watts)
Connecting wires for plug and play

b. Commercial Details

i.e. for 10 users the total cost will be = Rs. (10X18500) 1,85,000.00

c. Advantages:

  1. Educational support to needy students and lifestyle of
  2. Commercially support for working in evening time with free electricity cost for needy villagers.
  3. Model will be set up for improvement of other villager’s life style.

7. Solar powered drinking water project 

The Solar water pumping system operates on the principle of PV(Photovoltaics) technology. Basically, this technology converts the sunlight into electricity used for pumping waters. Solar pumps are mainly classified into two types: Submersible solar pumps and Surface solar pumps. Submersible pumps are placed deep below the ground level down the well or sump, and they are used to pumping waters from a maximum depth of 20 meters. Surface pumps are placed above the ground and primarily used to move water through pipelines. Surface pumps can be used for the maximum depth of 50 meters.

a. Technical Details :

Sr. noTechnical parameterValueUnit
1Size of Solar pump1 HPHP
2Type of power plantOff-Grid 
3Unit generation per year1,500/per HPUnits/yea r
4Total Panels Required1.0 KW : 1 HPKW
5Controller typeModel -1HP MPPT – Inbuilt Display – Inbuilt Phase – 3 phase Output Voltage AC – 415 V Input Voltage DC – 800 V Max Voltage DC vamp – 580 V Output Amp – 1.7 A per HP GSM GPRS- If required Box- Powder coated. Protection features : Dry Run ProtectionOver Voltage, low voltage, phase lossOver Load, short circuit, open circuit Reverse Polarity Protection 
6Support StructureGalvanized IronGI Fixed mounting structure. 
7Angle with Horizontal17 to 23 degree 

b. Commercial Details

Sr. noTechnical parameterValueUnit
1Solar PanelsMPPT pump controllerMounting Structure (GI)Solar pump(submersible)Float sensorWater tank (2000 ltr)Civil work, Boring, Pipeline,Misc. BOS2,35,000/ INR
2WARRANTY Solar panelSolar pumpSolar pump controller25 years (output 80%) 2 years 2 years 

c. Advantages:

  • Extremely low operating cost
  • Comparatively low maintenance
  • Simple and highly reliable
  • Eco-Friendly
  • Economically beneficial

8. Summary :

As every drop count and contributes to form a sea, this initiative can be well assumed to be one such bold step with some broader perspective and objective. A very well thoughtful idea and strategic approach towards coming up with a brighter smarter village. This will certainly attribute to change in life pattern of the villagers to the world of knowhow and show them the light to come out of darkness in this competitive era.

In summary, this above project is proposed based on the humanity ground to develop the lifestyle of villagers in a village named Bhaluka where pure drinking water can be provided from their better health perspective, few needy students will be benefitted through home light without spending electricity bill and darkness in road can be eliminated through street light setup which will have huge impact in their daily life from safety and security along with commercialization point of view.





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